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Home -> Reference -> Earthwork Materials

Weights and Swell Factors of Earthwork Materials

Evenfall Studios - Tooling, Fixtures and Jigs for Hand and Power Tool Woodworking

~ Artisan Made Tooling, Fixtures and Jigs
for Hand and Power Tool Woodworking ~

Handcrafted in Northern California USA • We Ship Internationally

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Vital information when estimating and grading for any construction.

Material classifications are in accordance with commonly held international standards

2.21 Top Soils

2.22 Water-holding soft materials

2.23 Easy diggable materials, like sand and gravel without clay content

2.24 Medium penetratable materials like gravel and well shot materials over 2 1/2" and lighter than 2.26 classification

2.25 Moist sand and gravel with high contents of wet clay. Still diggable with spade.

2.26 Heavy soils, like tough to penetrate clay and 2.25 classification materials in dry state. Not penetratable with spade.

2.27 Breakable rock and similar i.e., deteriorated rock, soft limestone, shale, etc.,

2.28 Heavy rock, not deteriorated or cracked. Has to be shot to be dug.

Weight of materials 1)
bank
lb/cuyd/kg/m3
swell in %
swell factor
loose
lb/cuyd/kg/m3
Basalt
5000/2970
52
0.66
3300/1960
Bauxite, kaolin
3200/1900
33
0.75
2400/1420
Carnotite, uranium ore
3700/2200
35
0.74
2750/1630
Cinders
1450/ 860
54
0.65
950/ 560
Clay - natural bed
3400/2020
22
0.82
2800/1660
         dry
3100/1840
24
0.80
2500/1480
         wet
3500/2080
24
0.80
2800/1660
Clay with gravel - dry
2800/1660
17
0.86
2400/1420
                          wet
3100/1840
19
0.84
2600/1540
Coal - anthracite, raw
2700/1600
35
0.74
2000/1190
                          washed
--------
35
0.74
1850/1100
          ash, bituminous coal
1000-1500/590-890
8
0.93
900-1100/550-830
                 bituminous coal, raw
2150/1280
35
0.74
1600/ 950
                                          washed
-------
35
0.74
1400/ 830
Decomposed rock 75% rock, 25% earth
4700/2790
42
0.70
3300/1960
                           50% rock, 50% earth
3850/2280
33
0.75
2900/1720
                           25% rock. 75% earth
3300/1960
24
0.80
2650/1570
Earth - dry packed
3200/1900
26
0.79
2550/1510
           wet excavated
3400/2020
26
0.79
2700/1600
           loam
2600/1540
23
0.81
2100/1250
Granite - broken
4600/2730
64
0.61
2800/1660
Gravel - pitrun
3650/2170
12
0.89
3260/1930
            dry
2850/1690
12
0.89
2550/1510
            dry 6-50 mm (1/4"-2")
3200/1900
12
0.89
2850/1690
            wet 6-50 mm (1/4"-2")
3800/2260
12
0.89
3400/2020

Weight of Materials 1)
bank
lb/cuyd/kg/m3
swell in %
swell factor
loose
lb/cuyd/kg/m3
Gypsum - broken
5350/3170
75
0.57
3050/1810
               crushed
4700/2790
75
0.57
2700/1600
Hematite, iron ore
4700-6400/2130-2900
18
0.85
4000-5400/1810-2450
Limestone - broken
4400/2610
69
0.59
2600/1540
                  crushed
-----
-----
-----
2600/1540
Magnetite, iron ore
5500/3260
17
0.86
4700/2790
Pyrite, iron ore
5100/3030
18
0.85
4350/2580
Sand - dry, loose
2700/1600
12
0.89
2400/1420
           damp
3200/1900
12
0.89
2850/1690
           wet
3500/2080
13
0.88
3100/1840
Sand with clay - loose
3400/2020
26
0.79
2700/1600
                        compacted
-----
-----
-----
4050/2400
Sand with gravel-dry
3250/1930
12
0.89
2900/1720
            wet
3750/2230
10
0.91
3400/2020
Sandstone
4250/2520
67
0.60
2550/1510
Shale
2800/1660
33
0.75
2100/1250
Slag - broken
4950/2940
68
0.59
2950/1750
Snow - dry
-----
-----
-----
  220/  130
           wet
-----
-----
-----
 860/  520
Stone-crushed
4500/2670
67
0.60
2700/1600
Top soil
2300/1370
44
0.69
1600/  950
Trap rock - broken
4400/2610
49
0.67
2950/1750

1) Varies with moisture content, grain size, degree of compaction, etc.
Tests must be made to determine specific material characteristics.

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